Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Treatment

Background Information: Retro-orbital fibroblasts stimulating to secrete glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) causes exophthalmos. Mnemonic: “Proper Prophylactic Preparation” to Avoid Bulging Eyes Proper – Propanolol Prophylactic – Propylthiouracil Preparation – Prednisone Mnemonic Aid: Quizlet Flash Cards: https://quizlet.com/143098112/qs-36-second-usmle-mnemonic-video-series-flash-cards/ Back to School Special Group Buy for Picmonic: http://www.picmonic.com/referrals/4EGX0XWP6S6ALGR16 * Picmonic really helped me to push through basic sciences and saved […]

Signaling Pathways of Endocrine Hormones – cGMP

Background Information: Endocrine hormones takes various types of signaling pathways including Intracellular (lipophilic hormones), cGMP (major vasodilator), G(s)PCR/cAMP (vasodilatory), G(q)PCR/IP3 (vasoconstrictive), Tyrosine Kinase (FLAT PiG), and Intrinsic Kinase (major anabolism or cell development). Mnemonic: Cycling Grandpas takes “NO NaP!” Cycling Grandpas – cGMP NO – Nitric Oxide (NO) NaP – Natriuretic Peptides (ANP, BNP) Mnemonic […]

Laboratory Findings of Conn Syndrome

Background Information: Primary hyperaldosteronism may arise from a secretory adrenal adenoma (a.ka.a Conn Syndrome) or from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Mnemonic: “Conan Clearly Failed to Sing Well” Conan – Conn Syndrome Clearly – Clear Cells (Lipid-Laden) Failed to – Failure to Suppress Aldosterone with Salt Loading Sing – Single Well – Well-Circumscribed Adenoma Mnemonic Aid: https://youtu.be/7CX9deo7VkQ […]

Neuroendocrine Tumors Known for Hormone Hypersecretion

Background Information: Tumors that arise from the endocrine cells (hormonal) and nervous systems. Mnemonic: “SAME Car” S – Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung A – Adrenal Medullary Carcinoma M – Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma E – Endocrine Pancreas Carcinoma Car – Carcinoid Tumor (Most Common) Mnemonic Aid: Imagine endocrine cells saying ‘Let’s all take the […]

Cancer Associated with Tumour Marker beta-hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the embryo subsequent to implantation. Therefore, we use hCG to detect possible pregnancy. However, few tumors can produce this hormone as well. Mnemonic: “Hidden Chocolate Treats” Hidden – Hydatidiform Moles Chocolate – Choriocarcinoma Treats – Testicular Cancer Mnemonic Aid: Is chocolate always good? Nope! Not if […]

Symptoms of VIPoma (WDHA Syndrome)

Basic Background Information: VIPoma is a rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour that secretes vasoactive intestinal peptide (non-alpha & non-beta islet cell). Mnemonic: WDHA Syndrome “What Da HAck” Syndrome WD – Watery Diarrhea Hack – Hypokalemia hAck – Achlorhydria Mnemonic Aid: Imagine a dirty and poop filled washroom. Quizlet Flash Cards: https://quizlet.com/143098112/qs-36-second-usmle-mnemonic-video-series-flash-cards/ Back to School Special Group […]