Which Hookworms are Associated with Microcytic Anemia?

Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are nematodes/roundworms/hookworms. These parasitic worms (helminths) are transmitted through fecal-cutaneous contact. Moreover, microcytic anemia is due to a decrease in hemoglobin synthesis where a red blood cell MCV (average volume of a red blood cell) is < 80fL (femtoliters). Mnemonic: “Acing Duel Neck Americans” Acing Duel – Ancylostoma duodenale Neck […]

Obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens?

They are obligated to live inside a host cell; therefore, making them difficult to gram stain and visualize on a microscope. Mnemonic: “Really Cocky Clam” Really – Rickettsia Cocky – Coxiella burnetti Clam – Chlamydia Mnemonic Aid: These organisms are so cocky that they won’t drink the gram stains you give them for free!