Renal

Renal Agenesis & Associated Risks

Background Information: In renal agenesis, one or both kidneys fails to develop. Bilateral agenesis is not compatible with life (Potter Sequence in utero) but patients with unilateral agenesis live normal lives. Mnemonic: “Really Hyper Nephew Chris” Really – Renal Infection Hyper – Hypertension Nephew – Nephrolithiasis Chris – Chronic Kidney Disease Mnemonic Aid: Make yourself […]

Fanconi Syndrome & Its Effect on the Transport of Substances

Background Information: Fanconi Syndrome may lead to defective transport of many substances across the proximal tubule of the kidney. Medications like expired tetracyclines may cause the damage of the tubule. Mnemonic: “PhotoPhobic Amy Saw U Buy Glucose” PhotoPhobic – Phosphate & Potassium Amy – Amino Acids Saw – Sodium U – Uric Acid Buy – […]

Features of Arginase Deficiency

Background Information: Arginase is an enzyme (urea cycle) that produces urea and ornithine from arginine. Mild to absence of hyperammonemia distinguishes arginase deficiency from other urea cycle disorders. Mnemonic: “GAS” G – Growth Delay (Correlated to Elevated Arginine Levels) A – Abnormal Movements S – Spastic Diplegia Mnemonic Aid: Where do you go to pee […]